From HandWiki
Short description: Extension of Esperanto that combines Cherokee grammatical features
Created byBilly Ray Waldon
DateLikely began in the 1950s or 1960s
UsersUnknown, atleast one
SourcesPhonology derived from Esperanto, vocabulary mostly from Esperanto, but also partially English and Spanish, plus two words from Cherokee, grammar from Esperanto and Cherokee.
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)

Poliespo (Polisinteza Esperanto) (English: "Polysynthetic Esperanto"), also referred to as Po, is an International auxiliary language created by Billy Ray Waldon (also known as Nvwtohiyada Idehesdi Sequoyah), a Native American Movement activist and Esperantist on death row.[1][2]


The principle of creation for Poliespo was Nvwtohiyada's belief that certain languages contain words that made communication quicker, which he referred to as "lightning bolts" or "lightning words", and the goal was to combine as many of these as possible into one language. The language was originally referred to as Anagalisgi, the romanized form of Cherokee word for lightning. Most of Poliespo comes from Cherokee, English, Esperanto, and Spanish, the languages that Nvwtohiyada could speak.

The philosophy behind the language is reminiscent of sound symbolism or phonosemantics, and therefore radically differs from the principles of Esperanto.

Nvwtohiyada also claimed that learning Poliespo is a golden opportunity to acquire an "Iroquoian spirit". It is claimed that speaking Poliespo well is impossible without knowing Esperanto. In fact, repeating yourself in Esperanto (in this context, referred to as "Zaespo"), if you aren't understood in Poliespo ("Idpo" in this context), is considered speaking Poliespo.

Phonology and Orthography

Alphabet: a, â, ⱥ, ⱥ̂, b, b̆, c, ĉ, d, e, ê, f, g, ĝ, h, ĥ, i, ĭ, ĭ:, ĭ́, î, î:, î́, j, ĵ, k, k̆, l, m, m̆, n, n̆, o, ô, p, pʷ (actually, an overstruck ʷ), s, ŝ, t, t̂, ť, u, û, ŭ, v, z, ẑ, z̆, q, q́, q̂, q̂́, w, ẃ, ŵ, ŵ́, x, x́, y, 2, 2́.[3] [4]

Finding information about the Poliespo language as a whole is difficult, and most of the information is poorly explained. However, Poliespo is believed to have 32 consonants, including the glottal stop, in addition to 19 vowels (10 oral vowels, all but one of which has an equivalent nasal vowel). Poliespo is also a tonal language, having 3 or 4 tones. Rising tone is the only tone that is marked, using an acute accent, and it is unknown what the other tones are. [5]

Poliespo Consonants
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m   n        
Stop p b     t d   k ɡ /ʔ/
Preaspirated Nasal m̆ /ʰm/   n̆ /ʰn/        
Preaspirated Stop b̆ /ʰb/         k̆ /ʰk/  
Labialized Stop            
Affricate     c /t͡s/ ĉ /t͡ʃ/ ĝ /d͡ʒ/      
Fricative f v t̂ /θ/ ť /ð/ s z ŝ /ʃ/ ĵ /ʒ/ y /ç/ ĥ /x/ h
Approximant ŭ /w/   l   j (ŭ /w/)  
Trill     r        

Ẑ is [kts], z̆ is [gdz].

Poliespo Oral Vowels
Front Central Back
Close i ĭ /ɪ/   u
Mid e x /ə/ q /ɜ~ɝ/ o
Open ⱥ /æ/ a w /ɔ/
Poliespo Nasal Vowels
Front Central Back
Close î /ɪ̃/   û /ũ/
Mid ê /ẽ/ 2 /ə̃/ q̂ /ɜ̃~ɝ̃/ ô /õ/
Open ⱥ̂ /æ̃/ â /ã/ ŵ /ɔ̃/

The reason why [ə̃] is written with the number 2, is because Waldon believed the number 2 resembles a nose.


The structure is more similar to Ido than to Esperanto, since radicals are inflected (it is a polysynthetic language); therefore, the language is not perfectly agglutinative. Unlike Ido, it has only one prefix in addition to those of Esperanto: pe-, which is used to indicate the "neutral" gender. Besides the accusative, there is also a subject suffix, as in Korean and Japanese.

"I don't like bananas!"


External links